A very different type is represented by people with black hair, dark skin, and dark eyes, for whom black plays an important part in the harmony. The construction of the painting personality should proceed from its subjectively given predisposition of form and color. Knowledge of subjective timbres is of great importance in education and in art instruction. Education should naturally give every child the opportunity to evolve or- ganically out of himself.
Therefore educators must be able to recognize the aptitudes and potentialities of their pupils. Subjective color combinations are one key to identification of the individual's natural mode of think- ing, feeling, and doing. To help a student discover his subjective forms and colors is to help him discover himself. At first the difficulties may seem insurmount- able. Yet Iet us trust in the immanent spirit of the indi- vidual.
The teacher's help should be offered sparingly, though certainly with sympathy and love.
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As a gardener pre- pares optimal conditions for the growth of his plants, so the educator should provide the child with favorable conditions of mental and physical growth. Such growth will then follow its own inherent directions and forces. Art education involves two problems. The blond type should be assigned such subjects as Springtime.
Kindergarten, Baptism, Festival of Bright Nature subjects should be. Nature studies can be done in charcoal oi 2-lack and white pigments.
Color - Color - Wiley Online Library
It will then turn out that some iixiividuals have a preference and flair for certain con- trasts, and experience difficulty in handling others. Each student needs a grounding in universal principles, whether he likes it or not. They will generate within nirn natural tensions, prompting new creations. It is advisable to illustrate each contrast by analyses of paintings from the past and present. A learner benefits "Neatly when he encounters works that directly chal- irenge and interest him. One indi- vidual will feel drawn rather to the exponents of light- dark contrast, another to those of hue, of form.
The strong colorism of the Exnressionists will enlist the preferences of some. The emphasis varies with individual temperament and disposition. Teachers, physicians. One student's subjective colors were light viclct, light blue, blue—gray. When he was discussing his choice of vocation with me, I suggested that he had a natural affinity for metals, particularly silver, and for glass.
He did afterwards design furniture, and incidentally created the first modern steel chair. He ultimately became a highly successful architect in con- crete and glass. Another student's subjective color chords and compo- sitions contained orange—brown, ocher, red-brown and some black. Green, blue, violet, and gray tones were quite absent. The subjective concords of a third student consisted of sonorous light-violet, yellowish, and gold—brown tones.
In their arrangement, these colors produced an effect of radiant splendor, suggesting great powers of concentration. The shading of warm yellow into light violet indicated a religious tendency of thinking. A man cannot do his best except in an occupation that suits him constitutionally, and one for which he possesses the requisite aptitudes.
It is worth mentioning that though I have diligently sought opinions on my color representations of the seasons, I have never yet found anyone who failed to identify each or any season correctly. This convinces me that above individual taste, there is a higher judg- ment in man, which, once appealed to. This higher judgment is surely a faculty of the intellect.
Goethe: The Reluctant Bourgeois
That is why well-disciplined color thinking and a knowl- edge of the potentialities of colors are necessary to save 25 Among painters, I perceive three different attitudes towards problems of color. First there are the epigoni, having no coloration of their own but composing after the manner oftheirteachers orother exemplars.
The second group is that of the "originals" — those who paint as they themselves are. They compose ac- cording to their subjective timbre. Though the theme changes, the chromatic expression of their paintings remains the same. Leonardo has reference to this group in his Trattato della Pittura: "How ridiculous are those painters who give their figures small heads because their own heads are small. The third group is that of the universalists — artists who compose from inclusive, objective considerations Each of their compositions, according to the subject to be developed.
That there should be but few painters in this group is under- standable. Besides, they must possess high intelligence. His face and body lose color as the light of life is extinguished. The 26 dead soulless matter of the corpse is devoid ofchromatic emanation. Decorators and designers sometimes tend to be guided by their own subjective color propensities. This may lead to misunderstandings and disputes, where one subjective judgment collides with another For the solution of many problems, however, there are objec- tive considerationsthat outweigh subjective preferences.
Thus a meat market may be decorated in light green and blue-green tones, so that the various meatswill appear fresher and redder Confectionery shows to ad- vantage in light orange, pink, white, and accents of black, stimulating an appetite for sweets If a com- mercial artist were to design a package tor coffee bear- ing yellow and white stripes, or one with blue polka- dots for spaghetti, he would be wrong because these form and color features are in conflict with the theme.
Accordingly, gardeners are daily concerned with impor- tant problems of form and color. Theyobservethegrowth of plants, their shapes and proportions, and the colors of blossoms, foliage and fruit. The soil, surrounding vegetation, rocks, and conditions of light and shade must receive due consideration if plantings are to produce hoped-for effects. One cannot simply choose one's favorite species and colors of flowers. It would be wrong to plant blue larkspur against a brown wooden fence, or yellow flowers in front of a white stone wall, because these backgrounds would detract from the color effect.
Florists are rigidly dependent on the season and on the Called upon ti: supply floral decorations for the anniversary of an association, the florist would arrange strong colors arid large blossoms in ceremonial, rather impersonal crambiriations.
Salespeople whose customers are sensitive to color -will be more successful if they try to understand their ctietomers' tastes rather than to impose their own. Every woman should know what colors are becoming to her: these will always be her subjective colors and their complements.
When a customer is looking for a certaiii hue, he needs to know what other colors may strengthen, weaken, or simultaneously modify it. If these alt: close to his subjective colors, he will easily discover We tints and shades he needs. Clients who are chromatic- ally "related" to him will be pleased, but those who are attuned to orange, or green, will find their surroundings uncongenial and will feel i l—at—ease. They should realize that only people of corresponding color sense will enjoy these quarters. Uncongenial colors may constitute a severe stress upon sensitive individuals.
These examples all go to show that subjective taste cannot suffice for the solution of all color problems. Knowledge of objective principles is essential to the correct evaluation and use of colors. Theory of Color Design Constructive color theory embraces the principles of color effects insofar as they can be derived empirically. At last, when it comes to execution.
In other words, he too, like Rodin and other masters, devised a rationally calculated composition, which he would afterwards use or reject 79 according to his subjective feeling during the course of the work Any calculated plan, then, will not be the ruling factor. In order to learn the objective principles of color, take brush in hand and reproduce the charts and exercises in this book.
Color - A Multidisciplinary Approach
The figures show only elementaryexamples, and the beginning colorist must do a great many more exercises if he is to progress beyond the theoretical. The Twelve-Part Color Circle By way of introduction to color design, let us develop the l2—hue color circle from the primaries — yellow, red, and blue. In examining each color, it is important to view it against a neutral- gray background.
The primary colors must be defined with the greatest Dossible accuracy.
We place them in an equilateral triangle with yellow at the top, red at the lower right, and blue at the lower left. About this triangle we circumscribe a circle, in which We inscribe a regular hexagon In the isosceles triangles between adjacent sides of the hexagon, we place three mixed colors. They must not lean towards either primary compo- nent. You will note that it is no easy task to obtain the secondaries by mixture. Orange must be neither too red.
Now, at a convenient radius outside the first circle, let us draw another circle, and divide the ring between them into twelve equal sectors. In these blank sectors, we then paint the tertiary colors, each of which results from mixing a primary with 29 The sequence of the colors is that of the rainbow or natural spectrum. Newton obtained a continuous color circle of this kind by supplementing the spectral hues with purple.
So the color circle is an artificially augmented spectrum. The twelve hues are evenly spaced, with complementary colors diametrically opposite each other. One can accurately visualize any of these twelve hues at any time, and any intermediate tones are easily located.