Independent of diet and lifestyle factors, your genetics can affect your risk for type 2 diabetes , too. Research on twins backs this up, according to an article published in December in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. And having a relative with diabetes may put you at a fourfold risk of developing the disease yourself.
Your ethnicity or race may affect your risk for type 2 diabetes , too, noted an article published in December in Current Diabetes Reports. Receiving a prompt diagnosis is crucial for successfully treating type 2 diabetes. To screen you for type 2 diabetes, your doctor may administer one of the following tests, per the Mayo Clinic: While an A1C of 5. Fasting Glucose Test This test involves giving a blood sample after you have fasted for eight hours, according to Medline Plus.
The prognosis of diabetes depends on several factors, including duration of disease, state of disease, and genetic factors. If you have had poorly controlled diabetes for a longer time, the greater your risk for complications such as heart disease and neuropathy, past research has noted. Unfortunately, people with diabetes tend to have shorter life spans than people without this health condition, a past study suggested. Receiving a prompt diagnosis can help you get your health on track and reduce your risk for complications.
Indeed, if you take care to manage your blood sugar by following a healthy diet, exercising regularly, taking your prescribed medication , and losing weight , you may find your quality of life to be better with diabetes than it was before your diagnosis. Although changes to your diet and lifestyle, and oral and injectable medication such as insulin can help manage type 2 diabetes, the disease's underlying predisposition for insulin resistance cannot be cured.
One way to bring blood sugar levels down is by losing 5 to 7 percent of your body weight. In the national Diabetes Prevention Program DPP , participants who did just that and exercised for at least minutes weekly cut their risk for type 2 diabetes by 58 percent, according to the CDC.
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Chan School of Public Health also notes that following a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and shedding extra pounds can improve your management of type 2 diabetes. With time, you may require additional treatments and, with poor blood sugar control, potentially insulin to better manage your blood sugar, according to Harvard. Preventing these episodes requires knowing the signs, causes, and treatment options to get your blood sugar back in a healthy range.
High blood sugar doesn't always produce symptoms, so it's important to check your blood sugar regularly, as indicated by your doctor. According to the ADA, hyperglycemia high blood sugar symptoms include: If you've been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you can work with your doctor to devise a treatment plan to keep it as close to a healthy range as possible.
Diabetes management: How lifestyle, daily routine affect blood sugar - Mayo Clinic
Learn More About Hyperglycemia. Although low blood sugar is more common in people with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes can also develop this condition, especially if they are using insulin. The Mayo Clinic warns that low blood sugar can happen if: Although no two people will have the exact same symptoms of low blood sugar, there are some common signs to watch out for, the ADA advises: If you have type 2 diabetes, you've probably had a conversation with your doctor about how to treat yourself for low blood sugar. If you feel your blood sugar dropping , check your blood sugar to be sure that your symptoms are related to hypoglycemia and not something else, such as stress.
Next, quickly consume 15 to 20 grams g of simple carbohydrates , advises the ADA. Recheck your blood glucose level after 15 minutes. If it's still low, eat another 15 to 20 g of simple carbohydrates, according to the ADA. Good sources of simple carbohydrates which are digested and absorbed quickly to treat hypoglycemia include: Family members, coworkers, and other people you're in close contact with should be taught how to administer a glucagon injection in case you have a severe hypoglycemic event and can't do it yourself.
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Learn More About Hypoglycemia. For example, you may be prescribed the oral medication Glucophage metformin , which can help lower your blood sugar levels. Sulfonylureas and Meglitinides This type of drug works by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine. Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors These drugs can help slow digestion of certain carbs, to help prevent blood sugar spikes after you eat, noted an article published in November in Diabetes Self-Management. Thiazolidinediones TZDs This group of drugs helps increase insulin sensitivity, in turn stabilizing your blood sugar levels, according to Diabetes.
GLP-1 Antagonists Diabetes.
DPP-4 Inhibitors These drugs block the action of an enzyme called dipeptidyl peptidase-4 from preventing the body from breaking down GLP1, a hormone that increases insulin secretion in response to a glucose and slows glucose absorption from the gut, per Diabetes. SGLT-2 Inhibitors These relatively new drugs facilitate the release of glucose through the urine by slowing the kidney's reabsorption of glucose, according to a review published in December in the journal Diabetes Therapy.
Consult your doctor if you're interested in one of these options, especially if you're on medication or insulin. Staying healthy with diabetes also requires caring for yourself — such as by protecting your feet, practicing oral hygiene, and tending to your mental health.
Healthy lifestyle can prevent diabetes (and even reverse it)
According to an article published in June in Current Diabetes Reports , having diabetes doubles your risk for depression , and yet healthcare providers commonly miss this diagnosis in individuals. Finding peer support is one effective way to manage your mental health , as well as your overall health, with type 2 diabetes, per a study published in August in the Annals of Family Medicine.
Bolus Insulin This type of insulin is fast- or rapid-acting. You typically take it prior to a meal, according to Diabetes. Test Your Knowledge! That can be tricky because carbs are in many of the common foods you may already eat, but there are both good and bad sources of carbs. Fruits and vegetables, for example, are good sources, while pretzels and cookies are bad sources. Sticking to regular mealtimes can help keep your blood sugar steady, notes the Mayo Clinic.
A diabetes diet is essentially a healthy diet for everyone! You can work with a registered dietitian-nutritionist RDN to come up with a personalized meal plan, and be sure to track your blood sugar if you introduce new foods to your diet. The Mediterranean diet , which focuses on eating fish, olive oil , fruits , veggies, and whole grains , has potential for helping manage type 2 diabetes, according to past research. One of the most common ways people with type 2 diabetes attempt to lower their blood sugar is by drastically reducing their intake of carbs.
The ketogenic, or keto, diet calls for dramatically increasing your fat intake and consuming a moderate amount of protein and a very low amount of carbs, with the aim of kicking your body into a natural metabolic state called ketosis, in which it relies on burning fat rather than carbs for energy. Ketosis is different from diabetic ketoacidosis , a health emergency that occurs when insulin levels are low in conjunction with high levels of ketones, according to the Mayo Clinic. While short-term studies have shown benefit to glycemic control, weight reduction, and medication reduction while on the keto diet, long-term data is still lacking.
Some risks of the keto diet include low blood sugar, negative medication interactions, and nutrient deficiencies. People who should avoid the keto diet include those with kidney damage or disease, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, and those with or at a heightened risk for heart disease due to high blood pressure , high cholesterol , or family history, according to a review published in February in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.
Learn More About Ketosis. Learn More About Diabetic Ketoacidosis. There's no surefire way to prevent type 2 diabetes, but maintaining a healthy weight, following a healthy diet, and exercising regularly can help fend off the health condition. Reducing risk factors such as high cholesterol and high blood pressure can also play a role in type 2 diabetes prevention, notes John Muir Health. If you have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you may have anxiety or concerns about the prospect of future health complications, such as amputations, heart disease, and vision loss.
According to past research, long-term complications of type 2 diabetes can be prevented and, in some cases, reversed or slowed by a combination of: If you have been living with diabetes for several years or are older, knowing your A1C goal and levels is particularly important, because you are at a greater risk for developing type 2 diabetes complications, according to a past study.
If your blood sugar is frequently imbalanced, you may be at a greater risk for the following type 2 diabetes complications :. Cardiovascular Disease Compared with people without diabetes, people with diabetes are at a greater risk for heart disease , statistically get heart disease at a younger age, and have more severe forms of heart disease, according to the NHLBI.
Lowering your risk for heart disease — or treating it, if you have it — involves a combination of lifestyle changes and may or may not include medication, the CDC points out. Diabetic Retinopathy In diabetic retinopathy , high blood sugar weakens the capillaries the tiny blood vessels that supply the retina, the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the inner eye. The capillaries then swell, become blocked, or leak blood into the center of the eye, blurring vision. In advanced stages, abnormal new blood vessels grow. When these new vessels leak blood, the result can be severe vision loss or blindness, according to the American Optometric Association.
Most commonly, it affects the nerves in the feet, legs, hands, and arms; this condition is called peripheral neuropathy. The pain of peripheral neuropathy is difficult to control, though some find topical products that contain capsaicin to be helpful. Prescription products that may help alleviate the pain caused by peripheral neuropathy include a variety of antidepressants and anticonvulsants, per the Mayo Clinic.
Diabetic Nephropathy Kidney Disease In diabetic nephropathy , the nephrons or filtering units in the kidneys become damaged from chronic high blood sugar. High blood pressure compounds the problem, and high cholesterol appears to contribute to it as well. In the early stages of diabetic nephropathy, you may not notice any symptoms, but standard blood and urine tests can detect early signs of dysfunction, and early treatment can stop or slow its progression.
As many as 25 percent of people with diabetes may develop kidney disease, according to the Mayo Clinic. Diabetic Ulcer People with diabetes have an increased risk of developing foot ulcers open sores. These foot ulcers can take several weeks to heal, and are a primary reason for hospital stays among people with diabetes.
If you have diabetes, the Mayo Clinic emphasizes the importance of examining your feet and legs regularly. This way, you can better identify diabetic ulcers and if needed get prompt treatment. If you have diabetes, you may also deal with sexual issues, gum disease, sleep apnea, and red or brown lesions diabetic dermopathy. As mentioned, nearly Worldwide, in , the World Health Organization estimated that more than million people had diabetes.
Being overweight or having obesity are risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and so is ethnicity. According to the Cleveland Clinic, conditions related to type 2 diabetes include: The good news is that tight blood sugar control, by way of diet, exercise, and medication, can prevent these comorbidities. The ADA is considered the leading nonprofit for type 1 and type 2 diabetes education.
The ADA's free yearlong program Living With Diabetes offers top-of-the-line resources for anyone new to living with diabetes.